Quelques PEINTRES REFERENTS, fin du XIXème (
Academic Classicism, Pre-Raphaelite, Orientalism, Victorian Neoclassicism) :

Alma-Tadema, Lawrence (1836-1912)

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema  was an English painter in the academic tradition. Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1869. His paintings are noted for fine detail, smooth finish, and the realistic representations of textures. Most of his works, such as A Roman Emperor (1871), depict idealized settings of ancient civilizations or medieval France. He joined the Royal Academy in 1879 and was knighted in 1899.

Bouguereau, William-Adolphe (1825-1905)

Boulanger, Gustave (1824-1888)

Cabanel, Alexandre (1823-1889)

Couture, Thomas (1815-1879)

Gerôme, Jean Léon (1824-1904)

Gervex, Henri (1852-1929)

Gleyre, Marc-Gabriel-Charles (Suisse, 1808-1874)

Godward, John William (English, 1861-1922)

Leighton, Lord Frederic (English, 1830-1896)

Baron Leighton of Stretton, was an English academic painter and sculptor, born in Scarborough, England. Leighton began his art studies at the age of ten in Rome, Italy, and later studied in London, England; Dresden and Berlin, Germany; and Florence, Italy. On his return to London in 1855, his famous picture Cimabue's Madonna Carried in Procession Through the Streets of Florence was purchased by Queen Victoria. He painted mythological and historical subjects, and his espousal of classicism established his reputation in England. In 1868 he was made a Royal Academician, and he became president of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1878. The day before his death in 1896, Leighton was given the rank of baron (Lord), the first English painter to receive that distinction. Leighton admired the rich coloring of the landscapes in Spain and Egypt and spent much time painting in those countries. He collected many objects from abroad for his opulent London home, now Leighton Museum.

Lefebvre, Jules Joseph (1834-1912)

Merle, Hugues (1823-1881)

Moore, Albert Joseph (English, 1841-1893)

Papety, Dominique Louis (1815-1849)

Poynter, Sir Edward John (English, 1836-1919)

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828-1882)

He was born Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti in London on May 12, 1828, son of the Italian-born poet Gabriele Rossetti. He was educated there at King's College and the Royal Academy. At the academy he met the painters Sir John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt, with whom he founded the "Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood". Rossetti was strongly attracted to the dramatic and the supernatural. Among his earliest paintings was a scene of the annunciation, "Ecce Ancilla Domini". His art subsequently developed through other phases, in which the sense of human beauty, intensity of abstract expression, and richness of color were leading elements.
Rossetti began writing poetry about the same time that he took to the study of painting. One of his best-known poems, "The Blessed Damozel", was written in 1842. He also made a number of translations from Dante and other Italian writers.
Rossetti's later years were marred by sorrow and mental depression. In 1860 he had married a milliner , Elizabeth Eleanor Siddal, whom he had been courting for years. He immortalized her beauty in many of his best-known paintings, such as "Regina Cordium". Within two years the invalid Elizabeth died of a laudanum overdose, and Rossetti was grief stricken by the tragedy. In addition he was troubled by a bitter attack that had been made on the morality of his poems in an article entitled "The Fleshy School of Poetry," published in The Contemporary Review in October 1871. Rossetti's rebuttal was published as "The Stealthy School of Criticism" in the Athenaeum in December 1871.
He later met (and was enamoured with) William Morris' wife Jane. It is said that the two procured permission from William to carry on an affair. Jane Morris is the woman whose face is seen in countless paintings- Her thick, sensuous lips and long neck have become Rossetti's trademark. He continued almost to the last to produce paintings and poems- In 1881 he published Ballads and Sonnets, which contained some of his finest work, "Rose Mary", "The White Ship", "The King's Tragedy", and the sonnet sequence "The House of Life". Of his later paintings, which are murky and dreamlike, two of the best known are "Dante's Dream" and "Proserpine". He died in Berchington on April 10, 1882.

Paton, Sir Joseph Noel (English, 1824-1901)

Roybet, Ferdinand (1840-1920)

Solomon, Joseph (English, 1860-1927)

Tanoux, Adrien (1865 - 1932)

Waterhouse, John William (English)

Watts, George Frederick (English, 1817-1904)
 


PEINTRES REFERENTS, Baroque :

Allori, Cristofano (Italian, 1577-1621)

Baglione, Giovanni (Italian, 1573-1644)

Cagnacci, Guido (Italian, 1601-1681)

Carracci, Annibale (Italian, 1560-1609)

Caravaggio (1573-1610)

Caravaggio was an Italian baroque painter who was the best exemplar of naturalistic painting in the early 17th century. His use of models from the lower classes of society in his early secular works and later religious compositions appealed to the Counter Reformation taste for realism, simplicity, and piety in art. Equally important is his introduction of dramatic light-and-dark effects—termed chiaroscuro—into his works.
Originally named Michelangelo Merisi, Caravaggio was born September 28, 1573, in the Lombardy hill town of Caravaggio, from which his professional name is derived. He may have spent four years as apprentice to Simone Peterzano in Milan before going to Rome in 1593, where he entered the employ of the Mannerist painter Giuseppe Cesari, also known as the Cavaliere d'Arpino, for whom he executed fruit and flower pieces (now lost). Among his best-known early works are genre paintings (scenes from everyday life) with young men—for example, The Musicians (1591?-1592, Metropolitan Museum, New York City)—which were done for his first important patron, Cardinal Francesco del Monte. Scenes such as the Fortune Teller (1594, versions in the Louvre, Paris, and the Museo Capitolino, Rome) were especially appealing to the artist's followers.
Caravaggio's mature manner commenced about 1600 with the commission to decorate the Contarelli Chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome with three scenes of the life of Saint Matthew. The Calling of Saint Matthew (1599?-1600) is noted for its dramatic use of “cellar light,” streaming in from a source above the action, to illuminate the hand gesture of Christ (based on Michelangelo's Adam on the Sistine ceiling) and the other figures, most of whom are in contemporary dress. About 1601, Caravaggio received his second major commission, from Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome for a Conversion of Saint Paul and Crucifixion of Saint Peter. In the former, a bright shaft of light carries symbolic meaning, indicating the bestowal of Christian faith upon Saul.

Caravaggio's personal life was turbulent. He was often arrested and imprisoned. He fled Rome for Naples in 1606 when charged with murder. There he spent several months executing such works as the Flagellation of Christ (San Domenico Maggiore, Naples), which were crucial to the development of naturalism among the artists of that city. Later that year he traveled to Malta, was made a knight, or cavaliere, of the Maltese order, and executed one of his few portraits, that of his fellow cavaliere Alof de Wignacourt (1608, Musée du Louvre). In October of 1608, Caravaggio was again arrested and, escaping from a Maltese jail, went to Syracuse in Sicily. While in Sicily he painted several monumental canvases, including the Burial of Saint Lucy (1608, Santa Lucia, Syracuse) and the Raising of Lazarus (1609, Museo Nazionale, Messina). These were multi-figured compositions of great drama achieved through dark tonalities and selective use of lighting. These works were among Caravaggio's last, for the artist died on the beach at Port'Ercole in Tuscany on July 18, 1610, of a fever contracted after a mistaken arrest.
Although the use of both realistic types and strong chiaroscuro originated in northern Italian art of the previous century, Caravaggio brought new life and immediacy to these aspects of painting, with which he effected a transformation of anticlassical Mannerism in early baroque Rome. Despite his personal protestations that nature was his only teacher, Caravaggio obviously studied and assimilated the styles of the High Renaissance masters, especially that of Michelangelo. Caravaggio's impact on the art of his century was considerable. He discouraged potential students, but throughout the century a naturalist school flourished in Italy and abroad based on an enthusiastic emulation of his style.

Gentileschi, Artemisia (Italian, approx. 1593-1653)

Gentileschi, Orazio (Orazio Lomi, Italian, approx. 1563-1639)

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, Italian, approx. 1591-1666)

Manfredi, Bartolomeo (Italian, approx. 1580-1621)

Reni, Guido (Italian, 1575-1642)
 


La figure humaine dans l'art occidental

La représentation du corps a toujours occupé une place centrale dans l'enseignement et le goût artistique occidental. De l'Antiquité en passant par la Renaissance et jusqu'au début du XXème siècle, le dessin d'après modèle vivant appelé "académie", généralement une femme nue, constitue avec la perspective la source principale d'apprentissage et devient d'ailleurs la dernière étape du cursus de l'école des Beaux-Arts.
Cet apprentissage commence par la reproduction de gravures, puis de plâtres issus de la statuaire antique, pour finir par le modèle vivant proprement dit.
En 1850, ceux-ci sont alors payés un franc de l'heure ( environ 3 € ). Vers 1875, la pose ordinaire de quatre heures coûtera environ 5 francs pour les artistes mais trois pour les écoles d'art, employeur jugé comme plus stable. La photographie, d'invention récente, commencera ensuite à concurrencer les modèles vivants. Une autre enquête datée de 1901 recense entre 800 et 850 modèles professionnels très souvent d'origine italienne. Ils résident essentiellement dans les quartiers de Saint-Victor à Paris. Les femmes, de préférence aux formes généreuses, sont alors payées 5 F (40 €uros actuels) pour une séance de 4 heures et les hommes, moins demandés, environ 4 F pour la même durée. Au préalable, le modèle est parfois invité à prendre un bain...


 
Joseph Bernard, modèle italien 1890

Les nus féminins séduisent avant tout un public masculin sensible au contenu suggestif et érotique des images. Ces représentations sont moralement tolérées par la société pudibonde de la fin du XIXème siècle, grace à l'alibi historique - exotique chez les orientalistes avec leurs Odalisques - ou mythologique lorsque la femme devient Vénus. Depuis la Renaissance les poils pubiens des modèles sont toujours soigneusement effacés, comme d'ailleurs sur la plupart des toutes premières photographies érotiques. En traitant de la nudité féminine, l'Art Baroque et, ensuite, l'Art Pompier ou Académique fédéraient finalement performance technique, beauté avec un certain plaisir des sens.


 
G. Leroux, Salon de 1904, Discussion autour de la pose

La peinture académique

 

Le nu académique